Archives: 2016

Commercial Mediation, A User's Guide by Brand, Steadman & Todd- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

Many litigants can testify bitterly to the costs, complexity, risks, uncertainty and

unforeseen consequences of traditional litigation. Particularly in commercial

disputes where the parties often require swift finality and certainty, it is not

surprising that mediation has emerged in many jurisdictions as a valuable and

effective option to resolve disputes.

As the co-authors of the updated second edition of this practical handbook

point out, “…there is already a rich body of law and of practical and theoretical

literature to draw on from other jurisdictions.” The clear, concise and userfriendly

text draws on these resources and the personal experience of the coauthors,

all seasoned practitioners, authors and commentators on labour,

employment and alternative dispute resolution.

 

The processes that take place before and during commercial mediation are

explained. The different types of consensus-seeking approaches and the key

principles of mediation are analysed. Expert guidance, sensible advice and a

sure feel for defusing, constructively channelling and managing the emotions

which are often present in disputes are insightful and reflective of the potential

for achieving balance and voluntary agreement inherent in mediation.

The ten chapters logically take the reader through every stage of the mediation

process. Specimen agreements to mediate are provided as well as specimen

contract provisions for mediation and arbitration. Explanatory diagrams

illustrate the text, footnotes are sensibly kept to essentials, the index is

comprehensive, each chapter is separately summarised, 49 South African

statutes which provide for mediation are listed, the rules regulating the conduct

of proceedings related to mediation in the Magistrates’ Courts are appended,

and useful references to further reading on the subject are included.

The entire package is a mediation toolkit simply but subtly designed and

refined for effective use.

“This book should be accessible to business people, government officials,

community leaders and lawyers who are involved in mediation. I hope that

people in all these areas will embrace the opportunities that mediation has to

offer. When they do, they will find in this book an invaluable guide in that

process.”

-Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa

 

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The Law of Landlord and Tenant by Sue-Mari Viljoen- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

Despite its title, this book encompasses far more than the traditional common

law contractual relationship between landlord and tenant.

The provision of housing, shelter, and “a roof over your head” for the homeless

has become a critical political and socio-economic issue in South Africa’s new

constitutional dispensation. For close to a century there has been state

intervention in the housing market in various ways, such as rent control and

increased tenure security to respond to demand and political pressures. More

recently, government policies as a means to achieve the constitutional right of

access to adequate housing has had a major impact on the contract law and

property law principles relating to the private law relationship of landlord and

tenant.

 

This comprehensive overview of the law of lease lists more than 100 South

African acts, regulations, by-laws and proclamations that have shaped the local

rental landscape. Comparable foreign legislation is also tabled, as is relevant

domestic and foreign case law. An extensive bibliography and pertinent

footnotes underpin the authorities, precedents and resources upon which the

text relies.

The distinguished author, Sue-Mari Viljoen B Comm LLB LLD, Associate

Professor of the Department of Public, Constitutional and International Law at

the University of South Africa, has marshalled the extensive subject matter in

masterful style to create an invaluable source of reference for legal

practitioners, property owners and developers, financial institutions, local

authorities, provincial and national housing departments, and nongovernmental

organisations dealing with the drastic shortage and provision of

housing in urban and rural areas.

Separate, well-organised and lucid chapters place the nature of the landlordtenant

relationship in context, analyse the intricacies of that relationship, its

creation and termination and deal in detail with the respective obligations of the

parties.

The notes on relevant foreign law which are to be found in suitable places

throughout the text are instructive in illuminating the relevant aspects of South

African law. The manner and extent to which landlord-tenant law can be

regulated to reach specific socio-economic goals and political aims is

illustrated by the author’s observation:

“The tenant’s obligation to return the property upon termination of the

lease as well as the actual expiration of the relationship has undergone

radical change in the constitutional dispensation through both the

introduction of new laws and judicial developments to provide greater

tenure protection for private and public sector tenants. These

developments are constitutionally inspired to ensure a more welfareorientated

approach to the eviction of vulnerable groups.”

Accolades are also due to publishers Juta and volume editor, Distinguished

Professor André van der Walt, South African Research Chair in Property Law

at Stellenbosch University, who has himself made a significant contribution as

author to Juta’s Property Law Library, most recently Introduction to the Law of

Property (with GJ Pienaar), Law of Property Casebook for Students, and The

Law of Servitudes (2016).

 

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Indigenous Knowledge & Intellectual Property by C Ncube and E du Plessis- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

The 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples has

brought to the fore the rights of indigenous peoples to the protection of their

knowledge and culture. Established legal intellectual property systems, which

view knowledge in terms of private individually-owned property rights that may

be commodified in a market economy, are however inadequate to protect

indigenous knowledge. It is easier to identify a specific inventor or author, and

to patent a single, bright idea than to do so for unique knowledge developed

over time by many people in an ever evolving community culture.

 

Indigenous knowledge is usually committed to the memories of people in a

particular geographic location and expressed in folklore, stories, songs, rituals,

dances, and other cultural ways, shared orally through traditional processes

within a specific community. This is transmitted from generation to generation

and is embedded in the history and culture of the community. It forms an

integral part of the social, economic, and technological identity of that

community, and its application and adaptation by cohesive traditional societies

ensures its long-term persistence, sanctity and progress within the natural,

social and economic environment of those societies.

Achille Mbembe, Research Professor in history and politics at the Wits Institute

for Social and Economic Research, has observed with regard to Africa: “…the

existence of deep histories and entrenched cultures of curiosity, invention and

innovation, long underestimated, neglected or misunderstood….In their

extraordinary liveliness and frugality, these cultures of retrieval, repair and

remaking of things are the repositories of tacit knowledge and skills that have

not been the object of proper documentation and even less so of archiving”.

(Mail & Guardian, 2017 January 6 to 12).

This collection of essays by distinguished authors and editors forms a valuable

and timely examination of the complex and daunting challenges of giving

substance to the rights inherent in and flowing from indigenous knowledge.

Various approaches to the protection of indigenous knowledge are assessed

as well as the tension between the desire to exploit traditional knowledge for

financial gain, and the desire to protect and preserve traditional knowledge.

These differing approaches are reflected in draft legislation that has been

formulated in South Africa, but this is a subject that is far from being resolved.

The contributions that this perceptive book offers, drawing as they do from

policy and legislative developments in various foreign jurisdictions facing

similar difficulties, provide significant insights and critical perspectives to what

lies at the heart of transformation and decolonisation.

Congratulations are due to the learnered editors Professors Caroline B Ncube

LLB, LLM, PhD and Elmien du Plessis BA, LLB, LLD, as well as the

contributing authors Professors Pamela Andanda LLB, LLM, PhD, and Sue

Farran BA, LLB, LLM, PhD, and Hojjat Khademi LLB, LLM, as well as

publishers Juta and Professor Hanri Mostert, series editor of Juta’s

Contemporary Legal and Applied Research Series. Recognition of the wider

importance and deep potential benefits of our rich and diverse indigenous

knowledge has been invigorated by this insightful and studious publication.

 

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Real Security Law by R Brits- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

It has been said that although South Africans achieved freedom under the

Constitution of 1996, they nevertheless remain in bondage. Progress, for

example through investment in property development, housing and

infrastructure, inevitably requires credit, and creditors require their rights to be

secured in the event of default. This may be achieved in a number of ways

including mortgage bonds, notarial bonds, pledges and liens.

Real security law is where property law and credit law meet to regulate the

rights that creditors have to property belonging to their debtors, either as

agreed upon between the parties or by operation of law. Such rights secured

by creditors facilitate affordable borrowing, investment in property and industry,

and thus the promise of economic prosperity.

In South Africa’s ever-changing socio-economic context, a sophisticated

system of both common law and legislation has evolved to maintain a fine

balance between the rights of debtors, creditors, other parties and the general

public. Financial uncertainty, unemployment, rising consumer overindebtedness

and homelessness are some of the critical factors which impact

on this fundamental area of our law. Without insecurity there would presumably

be no need for real security law.

The distinguished author of this key volume in Juta’s Property Law Library

series, Reghard Brits BComm LLB LLD, Senior Lecturer in the Department of

Mercantile Law at the University of Pretoria, describes and analyses the

current state of real security law in South Africa. Published author of numerous

journal articles on the law of property, he expertly draws together legal theory,

constitutional imperatives, commercial realities and the requirements of legal

practice.

In addition to all the conventional forms of real security, such as the mortgage

of land, the pledge of movables, general and special notarial bonds, cessions

in security of debt, the landlord’s tacit hypothec and rights of retention, other

security mechanisms imposed by statue are also fully dealt with, for example

municipal charges, embargo powers and the instalment-agreement.

Readers will be well served by the extensive biography of further sources, the

tables of cases and legislation, both domestic and foreign, the comprehensive

index and pertinent footnotes.

The author expresses the hope that “…the foundation laid in this book will also

serve as a platform for future modernisation – not only to keep up with global

trends and ever-expanding technological possibilities, but to develop a system

that is suitable for our particular socioeconomic and political context.”

This meticulously researched yet expansive forward-looking overview of real

security law will be welcomed by a broad spectrum of practitioners, property

owners, financial institutions and business people, straddling as it does

contract law, insolvency, corporate law, banking and finance, consumer

protection and conveyancing practice, all in the wider context of our economic,

social and political systems.

 

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The Law of Servitudes by A.J. van der Walt- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

Servitudes are limited real rights in the property of another person. They have

their origins in ancient systems of feudalism. That is why many servitudes are

agricultural in nature – a right of way across the land of another, the right of the

dominant owner to graze or water his livestock on the land of the servient

owner, or the right to dig out chalk, sand or stones on the servient land for use

on the dominant land.

Other servitudes received from Roman-Dutch law are less rural and more

urban in nature, such as servitudes of light, discharge of water from one

property onto another, and restrictions on building. Some of these have lost

most or all of their significance because of the development of modern urban

planning and building regulations.

An important distinction exists between praedial servitudes which vest over the

servient tenement in favour of the owner of the dominant tenement, regardless

of the personal identity of the owners of either tenement at any given time, and

personal servitudes which also vest over a specific servient property

regardless of the identity of the owner at any given point, but is in favour of a

specific person in his or her personal capacity, regardless of whether that

person owns any property.

This comprehensive study of servitude law is the first extensive work on the

subject for many years. It sets out in detail the current state of the law of

servitudes, including the common law, its development through the courts in

case law, and in legislation.

But it goes much further and evaluates the state of the law in the light of the

social, economic and political functions of servitudes. The constitutional

context and policy considerations are taken into account, bearing in mind

changed circumstances, the unequal distribution of land, urban densities,

housing shortages, environmental pressures and the tension between freedom

and access on the one hand, and security of ownership on the other. The

needs of the modern economy are considered as far as servitudes are

concerned, where both the retention and the relaxation of traditional antifragmentation

controls can be justified insofar as they improve the conditions

for efficient use of land.

The author, Distinguished Professor André van der Walt B Jur et Art Honns

(BA) LLB LLM LLD, South African Research Chair in Property Law at

Stellenbosch University, has included comparative notes throughout the text

on selected foreign law where appropriate which further places the law relating

to servitudes in the context of land use, policy and principles in various

jurisdictions. These contributions on foreign law by Lars van Vliet PhD,

Assistant Professor of Dutch and Comparative Property Law at Maastricht

University, further elevate the breadth and insight of this magisterial textbook.

Separate chapters deal with every aspect of the nature, acquisition and

termination of servitudes, the relationship between the servitude holder and the

servient owner, and the full range of praedial, personal, statutory and, public

servitudes.

Legal practitioners, property owners, financial institutions, urban and regional

planners, local and traditional authorities, legislators, environmentalists and the

mining and agricultural sectors will find this welcome resource invaluable. As

always with publisher Juta, the quilt has been craftily woven and stitched

together with skill and aplomb, keeping the end-user in mind, and incorporating

a comprehensive index, bibliography, tables of cases and applicable

legislation, and pertinent footnotes where required. This book will serve as a

handsome lynchpin of Juta’s Property Law Library.

 

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VAT- an introduction by M Botes- reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

Globally, Value Added Tax (VAT) has become the most common indirect

transaction tax system, since France implemented the first version of a VAT

system in 1948. VAT in South Africa currently provides 25.6% of government’s

tax revenue.

VAT is levied in terms of the Value-Added Tax Act 89 of 1991 (as amended). It

potentially affects everything that happens during the day-to-day operations

of the business world. As a result it is a crucial area to understand and master

for almost everyone involved in commercial activity.

This practical and useful handbook sets out clearly, logically and in plain

language how VAT works, and will be welcomed in any business environment

as well as by students and practitioners. Every aspect of VAT is dealt with and

explained, from VAT registration to input tax, from the importation of goods

and services to VAT returns and payments. A joy in navigating the pages is

finding answers to all those pesky questions that crop up, such as exemptions,

the export of second-hand goods, inter-group transactions, zero-rated taxable

supplies, the position of welfare organisations, dispute resolution, and even

detail such as when a motor car is converted to a game-viewing vehicle or a

hearse!

 

Each chapter concludes with a number of pertinent questions to test the

reader’s understanding and knowledge of the chapter’s content. Helpful

examples are provided, illustrating the principles involved.

An extensive glossary explains all the most important terminology and

concepts found in VAT law and administration, relevant cases are listed and

indexed, and there is a welcome limit to only essential footnotes, making this

book readable, accessible and less academic.

The author Marlene Botes B Com(Law), LLB, LLM, and publishers Juta are to be

commended for this excellent guide to the mechanics of the South African VAT

system and its practical implications.

 

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Civil Society and International Criminal Justice in Africa by H Woolaver & S Williams- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

The theme of this collection of 13 essays is the contribution of African

civil society organisations to international criminal justice mechanisms.

This includes the International Criminal Court (ICC), as well as regional

and national institutions.

Civil society groups in Africa are seeking to utilise international and

domestic legal frameworks to pursue justice for international crimes

committed around the continent and the globe. Such civil society

organisations are already playing a key role in domestic international

criminal justice procedures in several African countries, as well as

before international criminal tribunals, including the ICC.

A prime recent example of this is the order obtained in the Gauteng

High Court by the Southern Africa Litigation Centre ordering South

African authorities to prevent Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who

has been subject to two ICC arrest warrants since 2009, from leaving

South Africa (Southern Africa Litigation Centre v Minister of Justice and

Constitutional Development and Others, 2015(5)SA1(GP)). The

Minister’s appeal was dismissed by the Supreme Court of Appeal

(Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development and Others v

Southern Africa Litigation Centre and Others (867/15)[2016] ZASCA17).

The distinguished contributors include authors from South Africa,

Nigeria, Australia, Uganda, Germany and the USA. The subject is

comprehensively examined from a broad international perspective, with

a focus on Africa and in particular South Africa. Transitional justice

agendas and policies are covered and there are pertinent observations

from the field. There is no shying away from criticism where merited,

and difficulties are realistically addressed.

This authoritative body of work has its origins in a workshop held in

2015 hosted by the Law Faculty of the University of Cape Town in

collaboration with the Australian Human Rights Centre, UNSW

Australia, and with the support of the Australian Research Council.

Former Justice of the Constitutional Court of South Africa, Richard

Goldstone, who served as Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal

Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda, makes some

pertinent observations concerning the media:

“With regard to international criminal justice the media has played

both a positive and negative role. No criminal justice system can

be effective without wide public awareness of what happens in

the courts. Punitive justice depends entirely on such awareness.

Victims of crime require to be informed of the trials of the people

believed to have been responsible for their victimhood. It is

primarily for this reason that in democracies the courts are open

to the public and in particular the media. …All of the international

criminal courts and tribunals have been open to television

cameras… The media have more often than not described

acquittals in international courts as failures of the system. The

contrary would be correct. The fairness of any criminal justice

system should be measured not by convictions but by

acquittals.”

The co-authors, the contributors and publishers Juta are to be

commended for making this important collection available to a wider

readership. The insightful perspectives from academics, practitioners

and civil society representatives are a timely guide to a critical

aspect of the quest for justice in an emerging world order.

 

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Principles of Criminal Law by J Burchell- reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

This established work on criminal law incorporates major judicial

pronouncements in recent cases on important aspects of the subject,

including treason, common purpose liability, robbery with aggravating

circumstances, racketeering, consensual child sexual experimentation

and dolus eventualis (indirect intention).

Significant new and amended legislation is also dealt with, such as the

Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act of 2013, and

the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Act of 2008.

This Book is a companion volume to Cases and Materials on Criminal

Law (Fourth Edition, 2016) by the same author. Both are available in ebook

form, which will be welcomed by busy legal practitioners and

judicial officers.

 

In addition to its comprehensive content on the general principles of

criminal liability, there is a detailed exposition of specific crimes, ranging

from abduction to bribery, arson to perjury, extortion to fraud.

In dealing with the principle of legality, the learned author calmly sets

the context:

“The criminal justice system, by resort to arrest, trial and

punishment of wrongdoers, proceeds in the main by way of interference

with basic civil rights of life, liberty and property. In modern Western

liberal democracies these interferences, while permitted, are subject to

the rule of law or, in countries like South Africa, the rule of law and the

Bill of Rights. That is to say, the nature and manner of the interference

with civil rights is regulated by laws designed to ensure that the criminal

law is applied with respect for the civil and political rights and freedoms

prevailing within the society and according to agreed norms of justice

and fairness. The principle of legality constitutes the essence of the

Rule of Law in the context of the criminal law.’

With extensive footnotes and references, full tables of statues and

cases cited and a meticulous index, this is an indispensable and

authoritative resource by the leading academic in the field, with more

than 40 years of legal writing under his belt. Emeritus Professor of Law

and Fellow of the University of Cape Town, Jonathan Burchell BA, LLB,

LLM, Dip in Comparative Legal Studies, PhD, and publishers Juta are to

be congratulated on producing this excellent Fifth Edition 25 years after

the First Edition was published in 1991.

 

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Principles of Evidence (4th ed) by P.J. Schwikkard & S.E. Van der Merwe - Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

The law of evidence is fundamental to the effective functioning of a judicial

system in a constitutional state. The authors of this magisterial book set the

context:

“Courts normally have to make a finding concerning the existence or

non-existence of certain facts before pronouncing on the rights, duties

and liabilities of the parties engaged in a dispute. In this process of

litigation and adjudication the proof of facts is regulated by the law of

evidence, which is a branch of the law of procedure.”

 

The 32 chapters and extensive tables of cases, statutes and rules included

deal comprehensively with every aspect of evidence in its broadest sense.

The detailed footnotes, authorities quoted and commentary supplement the

well-organised text, all of which is fully indexed and set out in the user-friendly

and accessible format which is a hallmark of publisher Juta’s stable.

 

The clear and practical approach throughout this work is illustrated by this

passage:

“There are no degrees of admissibility. Evidence is either admissible

or inadmissible. Once admissible, however, it may carry more or less

weight according to the particular circumstances of the case. The

court weighs or evaluates evidence to determine whether the

required standard of proof has been attained. It is only after the

evidence has been admitted and at the end of the trial that the court

will have to assess the final weight of the evidence.”

 

Not only legal practitioners and the judiciary will find this updated fourth edition

indispensable, but a wider readership will be enthralled by topics such as

character evidence, opinion evidence, privilege, hearsay, confessions in

criminal trials, electronic evidence, the credibility of witnesses, the evaluation of

evidence and judges’ rules.

 

The co-authors P.J. Schwikkard BA LLM LLD, Professor in the Department of

Public Law at the University of Cape Town, and S.E. Van der Merwe B Iuris

LLB LLD, former Professor of Law at the University of Stellenbosch have had

the benefit of expert contributions from a quartet of other distinguished

academics, advocates and attorneys. First published in 1997, this remains an

outstanding and leading resource and formidable authority in South Africa in

the practice of both civil and criminal law.

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The New Derivative Action under the Companies Act by Maleka Cassim- Reviewed by FWB's Louis Rood

What is a derivative action? A company is a juristic person capable of

suing and being sued in its own name. Consequently, when a wrong is

done to a company, the action is brought by the company itself and not

by its shareholders. But a derivative action is an exception to this rule. It

is brought by a minority shareholder or other applicant on behalf of a

company in order to protect the legal interests of the company. The

shareholder derives his right of action from the company to protect not

his own rights, but those of the company. This is distinct from the

situation where shareholders wish to enforce their own shareholder

rights, in which case they would have personal redress and would not

have to rely on a derivative action.

 

The need for a minority shareholder to bring a derivative action on

behalf of the company, to redress a wrong done to the company,

generally arises where the company itself fails or refuses to institute

legal action to redress that wrong.

 

Section 165 of the South African Companies Act 71 of 2008 has

introduced a new statutory derivative action, which is available to a

much wider class of applicants than just minority shareholders.

Moreover, its use is not limited to wrongs that are committed by the

management or the controllers of the company, but extends to wrongs

that are committed by third parties or outsiders.

 

Under section 165 the court is entrusted with a pivotal function. The

court serves as the gatekeeper to derivative actions, and may disallow

applications for derivative actions that are frivolous, vexatious or without

merit. The court is required to exercise its discretion with reference to

certain criteria for granting leave to institute a derivative action.

 

This important new book is primarily aimed at developing guidelines for

the court to use in the exercise of its judicial discretion. It draws on

valuable principles from comparable jurisdictions in other countries. All

aspects of this important new remedy are expertly discussed by the

learned author Dr Maleka Femida Cassim MB Bch, LLB, LLM, PhD,

Associate Professor of Law at the University of Pretoria. She and

publishers Juta have produced an exceptional and comprehensive

scholarly work which will be welcomed by the judiciary, specialist

corporate and litigation legal practitioners, students and academics.

Those who are contemplating making use of a derivative action will find

the guidance, analyses and authorities relied upon invaluable in

formulating and bringing derivative actions.

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No Luck for Lucky Star at the SCA

Last year the Western Cape High Court heard a matter between Lucky Star and Lucky Fish whereby Lucky Star, who used its registered trade mark in respect of canned fish goods, alleged that Lucky Fish was using a trade mark that was confusingly similar to its own and, therefore, was guilty of trade mark infringement. The High Court dismissed Lucky Star’s case, finding in favour of Lucky Fish, which had several restaurants in Cape Town selling cooked fish and chips.

The Supreme Court of Appeal also dismissed Lucky Star’s appeal but stated that the issues were “considerably narrower” than those raised in the High Court. What is required is a comparison between the two marks, LUCKY STAR and LUCKY FISH. The court stated that “it is clear that this comparison should not take place in isolation. It must take into account the inter-relationship between the similarity of the marks and the similarity of the goods and services as registered for (Lucky Star)… and the use to which the marks have actually been put by (Lucky Fish)”.

The SCA held that the common feature of the word “lucky” when looked at as a whole comparison between the two marks is of minor significance. It found that the fact that the two marks included the words “fish” and the word “star” respectively is distinctive and cannot be ignored. Accordingly, the court held that the overall impression was not that the two marks resembled one another close enough for there to be confusion or deception created.

The full judgment can be found at http://www.saflii.org/za/cases/ZASCA/2016/77.pdf

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The sting of the "Green Scorpions" in tackling environmental crime

The National Environmental Management Act seeks to protect the Constitutional right to an environment that is not harmful to one’s health or wellbeing. The Act recognises that everyone has the right to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through measures that prevent pollution and ecological degradation; promote conservation; and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

One of the ways in which the Act seeks to achieve these goals is to provide for the appointment of Environmental Management Inspectors (EMIs). These inspectors have become known as the “Green Scorpions” as they investigate, inspect, enforce and administrate a range of environmental concerns.

The Green Scorpions receive instructions from the Minister responsible for environmental matters or the MEC and must always act within their prescribed mandate. Some of their power includes seizing items; questioning witnesses; searching vehicles, vessels and aircraft; conducting routine inspections; taking photographs and audiovisual recordings; issuing compliance notices and admission of guilt fines and making arrests. Their primary role is to ensure that environmental legislation is followed and enforced and that there is no damage to the environment.

The Green Scorpions often work in tandem with the South African Police Service in the investigation of environmental crimes before handing the cases over to the National Prosecuting Authority for prosecution.

Therefore, if you have seen someone committing an environmental crime like poaching, unlawfully disposing of waste, unlawfully polluting the environment, driving on a beach without a permit or illegally cutting and removing wood, contact the Green Scorpions on environment@tip-offs.com or phone the hotline on 0800 205 005.

To view their website with more information click here: https://www.environment.gov.za/projectsprogrammes/emi/about

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